Odisha Agriculture plays the major role to the state’s economy. The chief ccupation of people in Odisha is Agriculture. In Odisha about 76% of the total working population is engaged in agriculture and agriculture related industries. The major thing required for agriculture is soil and weather. The total cultivable land in Odisha is about 40% of the total geographical area. The most cultivating areas in Odisha are the coastal districts of i.e. Balasore, Bhadrak, Cuttack, Ganjam, Jajpur, Jagatasinghpur, Kendrapara, Khurda, Nayagarh, Puri etc.
Odisha is one of the largest rice producing state in India. The production of rice in Odisha is almost one tenth of the total rice production of the country. The main crops cultivated by the farmers in the state are Rice, Jute, Oil seeds, Pulses, Coconut, Mesta, Sugarcane, tea, Rubber, Cotton, Gram, Mustard, Maize, Sesame, Ragi, Potato, Soybean etc. The farmers of Odisha cultivate different crops in different seasons.
During Kharif season Paddy, Maize, Ragi, Small Millets, Arhar, Biri, Mung, Cowpea, Groundnut, Til, Caster, Mesta, Cotton, Sweet Patato, and Turmeric are the crops cultivated. Cash remunerative vegetables like brinjal, Tomato & early cauliflower are taken in Kharif season.
During Rabi season crops like Gram, Fieldpea, Mung, Biri, Mustard, Sunflower, Safflower, Niger, Potato, Onion, Garlic, Coriander, different vegetables, Tobacco & Sugarcane are cultivated by the farmers.
Cuttack, Sambalpur, Puri, Ganjam, Baleshwar, Koraput, Kendujhar and Kalahandi are the districts famous for rice production. Cuttack, Puri, Kalahandi, Koraput, Dhenkanal, Balangir and Sambalpur are famous for pulses production. Cuttack, Sambalpur, Balangir, Kalahandi and Puri districts are the major producer of the Cash crops in Odisha.
Heera, Kalinga-III, Annapurna, Vandana, Pathara, Khandagiri, Ananda, Naveen, – Lalat ,Konark, Tapaswini, Surendra, MTU-1001, Swarna, -1009, Moti, Mahanandi, Tulasi, Kanchan, CR-1018, CR-1030 are some varieties of paddy cultivated in Odisha. Sonalika and UP-262 are the varieties of wheat produced in Odisha. Ak-12-24, Smruti, TAG-24, JL-11 are the varieties of groundnut. Kalika, Uma, Vinayak are some of the varieties of Til.
Country made age-old agricultural equipments like wooden plough, wooden leveler, Bida, Sickle, Phowrah are used by the farmers. After introduction of improved agricultural implements, now-a-days the farmers are using these equipments. Some of the popular equipments are pedal thresher, hand winnower, puddler, Low Lift Hand Pump, Krushak Bandhu Pump, Heavy soil plough and Groundnut decorticator.